27 Apr 2017

PENSION SAVING FOR THE INFORMAL SECTOR

PENSION SAVING FOR THE INFORMAL SECTOR

When one thinks of pension saving in Uganda there mind will not be far from thinking about the National Social Security Fund (NSSF).

NSSF for long has been focused to pension savings of people in the public sector under formal employment focus is changing however to also include pension savings made by the private and informal sector as individuals in this sector are free to voluntarily make contributions to NSSF.

Contributions made can be at a minimum fee individual are comfortable contributing monthly.

When one thinks of pension saving in Uganda there mind will not be far from thinking about the National Social Security Fund (NSSF).

NSSF for long has been focused to pension savings of people in the public sector

Relevant arrangements have been put in place to incorporate private individuals as remarked by Mr. Stevens Mwanje head of Sales of NSSF.

 In a related event to The Uganda Retirements Benefits Regulatory Authority URBRA established under the Uganda Retirement Benefits Act 2016 awarded licences to Mazima Voluntary Individual Retirement Benefits Scheme (MVIRBS) and Kampala City Traders Association (KACITA) Retirements Benefits Scheme ON 3RD March 2017; the country’s first informal sector-based pension schemes after several months of legal review.

This will extend social protection coverage to the majority of Ugandan workers faced with inadequate social welfare coverage.

Several employers and employees in the informal sector lack proper hiring procedures, stable savings channels and reliable business records. Employees in the formal sector enjoy access to internal and external savings schemes.

An estimated two to three million Ugandan workers are covered by private pension schemes, the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) and the Public Service Pension Fund out of 15 million employed Ugandans, official data shows.

While some informal sector players earn considerable incomes every year, absence of stable revenue streams and low innovation appetite among fund managers is partly blamed for poor pension benefits coverage in the sector. Uganda’s informal sector accounts for 60 per cent of GDP and nearly 50 per cent of available jobs, government data shows.

Whereas membership to MVIRBS is open to anybody engaged in the informal sector, enrolment in KACITA retirement benefits scheme is restricted to members of the country’s most prominent trade lobby group that boasts of more than 1,000 members spread countrywide.

Member contributions to MVIRBS have been set at a minimum of Ush2,000 ($0.59) per day and a minimum of Ush10,000 ($2.9) per week for interested persons while registration fees have been fixed at Ush10,000 ($2.9) per person. Many local savings and credit co-operative organisations (Saccos) offer low income members monthly contribution rates of less than Ush20,000 ($5.9) that stimulate steady collection patterns and smooth lending operations.

MVIRBS said it has already accumulated initial contributions of Ush10 million ($2,925) from about 300 members and plans to grow its membership to 50,000 people over three years.

Do you agree that it is high time people in private and informal sector started saving up for retirement?

Do you feel that the informal sector will be complaint to the new developments?

 

05 Apr 2017

MSME GARAGE WEEKLY NEWSFEED

MSME GARAGE WEEKLY NEWSFEED

E-commerce, commonly known as online business has not only propelled global trade but as well as local trade. Many people in Uganda are now involved in online business but succeeding in this business needs you to have constant update of perfect market information.

 

We therefore give you an insight of economic changes that will guide your investment decisions today.

 

Commercial Banks Rates

 

Interest rate: lending rates is currently at 22.37%

                    Time deposit rate is currently at 11.76%

 

Inflation rate: food inflation is currently at 18.8% but headline inflation still stands at 6.7%

 

Exchange rates: Buying            Selling

U.S dollar           3607.63           3617.63

GBP                    4478.51           4490.92

Euro                    3879.14           3889.89

K.SH                       34.99               35.09

  1. SH                        1.61                 1.62

 

Commodities: prices expected to increase further due to the falling currency as shillings depreciates

 

Trade minister:  Minister Amelia Ann Kyambade on Wednesday launched QNET absolute living in   Uganda and called for more investors to extend their business to Uganda.

 

National: Government urged to revise taxes levied on smart phones to hasten Internet access

               Government launches multi-billion market in jinja district to boost fisheries

               Multi-million Nakaseke juice plant fails to start as more industrialization demand continues

 

Foreign: Netherlands invest 22 million euroes in Uganda to boost Agro-exports

              Korean government extends support of 900 million U.S dollars to modernize agriculture

World:  Europe markets lower, south Africa exposed stocks slump, EU offers pre-Brexit trade talks

 

For more local, national and international business news, visit our website on www.msmegarage.org

28 Mar 2017

PARTNERSHIP

PARTNERSHIP

TURNING FRIENDSHIPS INTO BUSINESS

Kato and Juma met and at university and they grew fond of each other. Because of the strong friendship they had, they agreed to enter into business together after graduating and in effect enter into a partnership.

After graduating, Kato and Juma started discussing going into business together and sharing ideas. They had capital with them but could not agree on what to do together because of their differing Interests. They want guidance on what they can do that will benefit them.

 

 WHAT IS A PARTNERSHIP?

A partnership is a relation which exists between people carrying on a business in common with the aim of making profits. The key terms in this definition is that there are two or more people, doing business together, the primary reason for the business is profit.

A Partnership can be formed even when the word “partnership has not been used. The moment people agree to “buy land together and grow cassava on it” they are agreeing to enter into a partnership, even when they don’t write any contract or agreement a partnership will exist.

HOW TO IDENTIFY A PARTNERSHIP

In case you may be in a partnership without knowing it, these are the ways of identifying whether you are in a partnership:

1. The relationship MUST exist between two or more parties; this means that one person can’t form a partnership by themselves.

2. The partners must carry on business together/ the same business. This means that both are contributing to the same business. It cannot be a partnership if one the partners are carrying on different businesses even if they are saving their money together.

3. Making profits must be the aim of the business. This does not mean that profits must be made, only that it must be the primary reason for the partnership. For example it would be misguided to form a partnership for the purpose of helping people acquire mosquito nets, it would make more sense to create an NGO or a CBO for that purpose. A partnership carrying on similar business would be better suited to selling mosquito nets for profit.

NB: For a partnership to exist, all the three requirements mentioned above must be present.

 

WHAT CAN JUMA AND KATO DO?

In order to decide on what to do, Juma and Kato can give thought to the following:

1. Who is providing the most capital whether it is financial or in terms of resources? That person has greater to lose and so it may be necessary for their opinion to be given greater weight.

2. Both parties can agree to concede something to the other party in order to come to an agreement. This is keeping in mind that one cannot always get their way 100%.

3. The time factor is important. Which one of the Partners will be spending more time at the business than the other? If both spend the same amount of time, then which partner is better skilled at the day to day management of the business? This partner may have to take lead on the big decisions.

Always keep in mind that a two headed snake will fail to go anywhere because the two heads will keep pulling the body in opposite directions. Sometimes one has to be the tail in order to let the snake move forwards.

17 Mar 2017

Becoming Tech Savvy in a Tech Era

Becoming Tech Savvy in a Tech Era

We live in a world where technology is taking over. Many business have failed to adapt to the times and have had to close up shop. Perhaps no example is more prevalent than that of Kodak, a business that had drowned in the amidst of technology advances. In light of this, we have compiled 5 helpful tools to going digital that will help your business to thrive.
Get a business email address
Email has become one of the most common ways in which people communicate. Email allows your customers and clients to reach you easily and enables you to run email campaigns that advertise your business. (Email campaigns are much easier to track than flyers!) Without an email address, you risk alienating an entire generation of online consumers.
Get a website
Websites legitimise your business to a world that is increasingly present online. The first thing the digital generation does when they hear of something new is Google! They will google your business to make sure it is real and to find out more information. So, build a website with all the relevant information about your business. When creating your website, make sure it is user friendly. There is nothing more irritating than a website that is difficult to navigate and hard to use; this will reduce traffic on your website. Google analytics is a great tool for tracking your website and its impact. To learn more about google analytics, click here.
Establish a digital footprint on social media
There are over 1.86 billion Facebook users. This means that Facebook has enough users to form a country in its own right! Establishing a presence on social media platforms is equally as important as building a website. Why? Because consumers will search for you on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and often use online reviews and comments to verify the quality of your business. Moreover, social media is a great place to market your business and run targeted campaigns. Facebook in particular, has been known to boost sales by 24%. For a few tips on increasing Facebook engagement, take a look at this article.
Invest in a Social Media and Brand Manager
Running social media presence may seem simple but it is fast becoming a sought-after skill in the corporate sector. If you have enough capital, invest in a manager who understands how social media works and understands your brand and your market. This can make all the difference in ensuring that your marketing campaigns are effective and reach the right people.
Use google applications
Use google drive, google doc, google sheets and google slides! These are useful tools available for document storage and help you create documents that team members can easily access and edit. Google applications enable you to share your work without having to send a million emails. Any changes made to the documents you create on Google are saved automatically; say goodbye to losing important documents. To create a google account and have access to all these wonderful applications, click here.

16 Mar 2017

THE MYSTERY OF INSURANCE EXPLAINED

THE MYSTERY OF INSURANCE EXPLAINED

THE MYSTERY OF INSURANCE EXPLAINED

What is Insurance?
Insurance happens when a person (insured) pays a certain amount of money (called premium) to an insurance company (insurer). This money is paid to cover loss against a certain event.

For example:
A person insures his house against fire, if fire breaks out, then the person can go to the insurance company and ask for payment (usually called indemnity) for the loss.

However, if a person insures for fire, but the house is destroyed by rain, then the person cannot claim the insurance money. Therefore, it is very important to know what risk is being indemnified when entering into an insurance agreement with your insurer.

How does one get insurance?
The first step to getting insurance is to identify the insurance company. You can find a list of insurance companies in Uganda here. Once you have identified an insurance company, then you can travel to their offices and agree on the terms and conditions of the contract. Typically, an insurance company will explain exactly how everything works, so you don’t need to know everything about insurance before you approach a company.

The amount of money you pay to an insurance company in order to obtain cover or protection is called a PREMIUM. Your premium will be used to “cover” the risk. An agreement between yourself and the insurance company is called the POLICY (contract of insurance). Once signed, both you and the Insurance Company will be bound to perform under the contract. The contract will contain all the terms of conditions for your insurance agreement, so it is important that you read and understand what you are signing. If you need help interpreting a policy, contact us through any of our platforms.

After signing the Policy, you become the insured and the Insurance Company becomes the insurer.

In the event that the risk insured against (for example fire) happens and causes the anticipated damage, the insured can bring a claim to the insurer for indemnity. For an insured to claim from the insurer, the loss that occurred must have been unforeseen or accidental (the exact details will be outlined in the policy). This means that if the insured is negligent or could have avoided the loss but did not, he will not be able to claim successfully from the insurer. A certain degree of care is required on the part of the insured lest he become reckless and bring about the event which would be disadvantageous to the insurer. Importantly, many insurance matters that end up in court hinge on a dispute negligence.

Why does Insurance matter?
There are many reasons why you should get insurance for your business but it all zeroes down to one thing: security against future uncertainties. No one wakes up and plans to fall sick, get into an accident, die or burn down their house but these events happen on a regular basis and often, they will affect your assets in one way or another.

Everybody needs insurance as a form of security. When you suffer loss due to an unforeseen event or accident, finding capital to cover the costs of damage can be very difficult. Insurance companies cover your costs so that you can focus your time, energy and resources towards operating your business.

What happens if there is a dispute between a person and the insurance company?
If there’s a dispute between a person and the insurance company, it is recommended that the person lodges a complaint to the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) which will try and resolve this dispute before the matter goes to Court. Complaints to the IRA can be sent via email or telephone.

If you are not satisfied with the decision of the IRA, then you can take the matter to Court. But remember: before you can enforce your insurer to act upon the contract, you must have fulfilled all your obligations under the policy. If you default on premium payments, you cannot force your insurer to cover you when a risk materializes.
Contact us to find out about the different types of insurance options available to your business. Make smart choices now to avoid paying for your mistakes later.

28 Feb 2017

CRYPTO CURRENCY AND UGANDA’S FINANCIAL MARKET

CRYPTO CURRENCY AND UGANDA’S FINANCIAL MARKET

You have probably read or heard about the idea of a “cashless economy” and wondered why the need for one or how exactly It can be done. Well, change is a constant and just as with all other parts of the economy the banking sector has experienced changes attributed to the rapid advancements in technology. The conceptualization of a cashless economy has been mostly manifested by crypto-currency.

WHAT IS CRYPTO CURRENCY?

A digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, operating independently of a central bank.
To put it in the simplest of terms crypto-currency is digital money mostly traded in through the internet.
There various forms of Crypto-currency up to 700. The most popular forms include Bitcom and One coin.

HOW DO CRYPTO – CURRENCIES WORK?

Transactions with Cryto currency occur through the use and exchange altcoins which are independent from formal banking systems. The currency is valued against the known paper or fiat money and the same crypto-currency appreciates depending on the demand by private individuals to buy specified amounts of it. The more demand a particular form of crypto-currency gains the more it appreciates in value.

IS CYPTO-CURRENCY REGULATED AND IS IT LEGAL CURRECNCY?

Some countries have straight out rejected the use and application of this form of currency such as Uganda while others have adopted a taxing mechanism for it to be taxable as property of private individuals such countries include the United States of America. Since it’s a form of currency that operates outside the known banking system of countries there have been challenges in many countries to grant it legal basis.

WHAT IS THE RELEVANCE OF CYPTO-CURRENCY?

The founders of crypto-currency are of a view that it is time to embark on having a more secure currency , a currency that enables better and faster transactions in trade across borders , a currency that encourages more value for the private owners and lastly a form of currency that reduces the cost of international trade which involves exchange of various forms of Fiat or paper money into other known paper currencies when travelling around the world that has often led to people losing money amidst travel and trade.

STATUS IN UGANDA

As stated previously, crypto currency is not recognized in Uganda as legal tender, the Central Bank (Bank of Uganda) issued the following notice to the public recently informing everyone that crypto currency is not recognized or considered money or legal tender in Uganda and any dealings in it are outside of the law and the purview of the Central Bank and therefore at the risk of the individual.

Below is a recent warning by Bank of Uganda concerning crypto currency:

BOU announcement

28 Feb 2017

WHAT TO DO WHEN YOU RECEIVE FAKE MONEY

WHAT TO DO WHEN YOU RECEIVE FAKE MONEY

Tina boarded a taxi to Mukono, when they had just passed Seeta, the conductor turned to the passengers and asked if any of them had change for 50,000/-, Tina innocently offered to give away her changed money in exchange for the 50,000/- note. After alighting at Sombe supermarket, she went in, to do some shopping but to her surprise once at the counter, the cashier refused to accept the 50,000/- note saying it was a fake.

Bank of Uganda is the only mandated institution with authority to print, issue and destroy any currency of Uganda. However, many people like Tina and businesses, have suffered loss due to the presence of counterfeits in the market.

WHAT IS A COUNTERFEIT

Legal tender is a means of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting financial obligation. In Uganda, bank notes and coins are the forms of legal tender.

Fake notes and fake coins are imitations of what is considered legal tender and are known as counterfeit currency. They have no value and are intended to pass off as genuine currency.

iN the laws of Uganda, it is a criminal offence to make counterfeit currency. It is also an offence to give out counterfeit currency, knowing that it is counterfeit.


HOW TO DETECT COUNTERFEITS

It is relatively easy to detect a counterfeit bank note if you know what to look out for. It is important to get familiar with the feel of bank notes to tell the difference when handling a suspect note since most bank notes are made from special paper with unique tactility.

According to the Bank of Uganda, some of the key features on the bank notes include:

1. A watermark and electrotype formed within the paper – When held up to the light, the crested crane image is visible. You should look for the light area near the eye and the dark area above the beak. The denomination of each banknote is also shown vertically in the electrotype form below the beak.

2. A windowed security thread running through the banknote paper – A special thread is woven into the paper. On the front it appears a silvery stripe. When held up to direct light, it appears as a continuous line and changes colour from red to green when tilted.

3. High quality paper – Members of the public report that they recognize a banknote as a counterfeit by the texture of the paper; and the fineness of the print quality on a genuine banknote is difficult for current scanning equipment to resolve properly. Intaglio printing, where thick ink lends a raised surface to the print surface, is difficult to reproduce.

4. The foil images are distinctly different for each denomination. In addition to the denomination numeral, a main pattern, Shield (50,000), drums (20,000), and pots (10,000) can be seen clearly. Moving lines around the main pattern change in a different manner on tilting the note side to side.


HOW TO AVOID RECEIVING COUNTERFEIT MONEY

When you receive money make sure you:

1. Check for the various features pointed out above. Make it a habit of checking the banknotes you receive. Many people are conscious about looking silly lifting the notes into the light or feeling for the intaglio printing, but consider how much you would be saving yourself.

2. If you receive a note you suspect to be a counterfeit while in a bank, insist on the manager (and the police) being called. And if you have received the money from a customer at work, call the police immediately.

3. If you ever get into a situation similar to Tina’s, make sure to check it, and if you suspect it is a fake, do not accept it. Simply alert the person to the fact and get it replaced. Then check even that one, always be vigilant.

4. If as you are inspecting the bank notes that have been handed to you and the person who gave it to you gets upset, keep level headed and explain that there is nothing personal involved. At the same time, do not get upset when others check the money that you hand them either.

30 Jan 2017

INSURANCE: What is Insurance?

INSURANCE: What is Insurance?

Insurance happens when a person (insured) pays a certain amount of money (called premium) to an insurance company (insurer). This money is paid to cover loss against a certain event. For example; a person insures his house against fire, if fire breaks out, then the person can go to the insurance company and ask for payment (indemnity) for the loss.

However, if a person insures for fire, but the house is destroyed by rain, then the person cannot claim the insurance money. Therefore it is very important to know what the risk being indemnified against is when entering into an insurance contract.
What happens if Opio wants to get insured?
The first step to getting insurance is to identify the insurance company. Once Opio has identified an insurance company, then he will go there and agree on the terms and conditions of the agreement.

The amount of money he is supposed to pay to get covered is called PREMIUM which will be used to “cover” the risk. An agreement called the POLICY (contract of insurance) is then signed between the Insurance Company and Mr Opio. In the contract of Insurance are the terms that shall bind Mr Opio and the company in the event that the risk being insured against occurs.

After signing the Policy, Opio becomes the insured and the Insurance Company becomes the insurer.
In the event that the thing insured against (for example fire) happens and causes the anticipated damage, the insured can bring a claim to the insurer for indemnity. For an insured to claim from the insurer, the loss that occurred must have been unforeseen or accidental. This means that if the insured is negligent or could have avoided the loss but did not, he will not be able to claim successfully from the insurer. A certain degree of care is required on the part of the insured lest he become reckless and bring about the event which would be disadvantageous to the insurer.

Why even bother to get insurance?
There are many reasons why one would require insurance but it all zeroes down to one thing; securing against future uncertainties. This is because no one wakes up and plans to fall sick, get an accident, die or burn down their house. We may not know the time or place when these things will happen but they are likely to in the due course of our lives.
We therefore need insurance as a form of security. In the event that any loss, we need to be covered and you can rest assured when you know that the insurer is taking care of it.

What happens if there is a dispute between a person and the insurance company?
If there’s a dispute between a person and the insurance company, it is recommended that the person lodges a complaint to the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) which will try and resolve this dispute before the matter goes to Court.

If a person is not satisfied with the decision of the IRA, then such a person can take the matter to Court.

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Do you have any questions or comments relating to this topic? We would love to hear from you. You can reach us through email at ask@barefootlaw.org, call 0414660539, on Twitter @BarefootlawUg. You can also send a message through our Facebook inbox or post your queries on our wall.

25 Nov 2016

DO CITY VENDORS BEING EVICTED BY KCCA HAVE ANY RIGHTS?

DO CITY VENDORS BEING EVICTED BY KCCA HAVE ANY RIGHTS?

It has been a rather hot and heated debate on whether the vendors should ‘GO’ or ‘STAY PUT’. As far as the debate- it is still ongoing in some circles, however the decision was made to have all unauthorized vendors removed from the city’s streets. When the operations to remove vendors started, the mode in which the street vendors were being removed raised calls of distress through the public the methods of the Authority’s enforcement officials were widely condemned. Even the Minister for Kampala, Hon. Betty Kamya has criticized the methods of some law enforcement agents also colloquially referred to as city KABODES.

WHAT IS THE POINT OF CONCERN?

Believe it or not these city vendors are countrymen and women of the Republic of Uganda and while their economic status and location may be at stake they still have respected rights. During the process of removal, some vendors reportedly had their property dragged away or damaged, individuals were roughly thrown onto patrol vehicles, some of them with infants. The outrage which followed the Authority was not about the evictions and arrest, but rather about the manner in which they were carried out.

DO CITY VENDORS HAVE RIGHTS?

As a prime reference, the 1995 Constitution of the Republic Of Uganda lays out a number of rights that people in Uganda are entitled to. These are summarized to include the following:
1. A right to life,
2. A right to protection from discrimination,
3. A right to protection from inhuman and degrading treatment,
4. A right to personal liberty and freedom of movement,
5. A right to a fair hearing before a competent court or tribunal.

The rights listed above are only a few of the freedoms and entitlements the city vendors have- among many. While carrying out any directives- the KCCA officers, agents and the police they work with are supposed to respect and ensure that these rights are protected.
The rights of people in Uganda are supposed to be protected and enforced for all people regardless of their social status. There are some rights where in certain circumstances they can be limited, however generally speaking the constitutional rights of every person are supposed to be protected and upheld.

DO THE CITY VENDORS HAVE DUTIES?

Even though the vendors should not be abused and their rights denied them, they have got duties to obey the law.
Hawking in a place where the authority has been clear it is illegal to amounts to an offence. When the authority notices that there is an offence committed it has the power to order the offenders to leave that restricted place. Where the offenders refuse to leave that place, then the authority can remove them.

WHEN ILLEGAL VENDORS ARE BEING REMOVED- IS FORCE ALLOWED?

When vendors are being removed from a prohibited place, the authorities are not supposed to use force. Should the vendors refuse to move as instructed, then the authorities can use minimal force- just enough, to get them to move from the place.
Where the said vendors resist their being removed, and in their resisting they use force- then they can be removed with more force which is just enough to execute the orders of the authority. This means that when people sit down and refuse to move, the authorities can carry them away, and like that they will end up using force.

WHAT COULD BE DONE TO SAFEGUARD AND PROTECT LIVES?
In order to ensure that rights are safeguarded and people’s lives are protected it is prudent for all involved parties to keep in mind the following

Vendors:
1. You have rights, but also a responsibility to follow the law
2. Where you are unsatisfied with a decision by an administrative authority, use legal means to challenge it
3. Resisting arrest is an offence/ crime in itself, and only makes things worse
4. Using force to resist arrest enables the law enforcement officials to use more force

Law Enforcement Officials
1. Force should be reasonable and only what is necessary, excessive force is unlawful
2. Please try all other methods of achieving a goal before resorting to force
3. A person does not lose their rights just because they commit a criminal offence or break the law.

04 Nov 2016

WHAT IT MEANS FOR THE CRANE BANK FILE DISAPPEARANCE

WHAT IT MEANS FOR THE CRANE BANK FILE DISAPPEARANCE

WHAT IT MEANS FOR THE CRANE BANK FILE TO DISAPPEAR FROM URSB

The Crane Bank Saga recently got deeper when it was reported that indeed the Crane Bank File in the Uganda Registration Services Bureau (URSB) went missing.

URSB PUBLIC NOTICE
The notice published by the Bureau on 02nd November acknowledged that the Bank’s file was declared missing on 10th October 10, 2016 and that the matter was reported to the Uganda Police Force. The Bureau also notified the public that it has got a duplicate file with information on the company from July 1990 when it was registered however it did not mention the date of the last update to the duplicate file which is what may be of most interest to any investigations going on into the Bank’s operations.
Many have wondered, why this is important, and does it in any way affect the bank in its current situation. In order to find out whether this event is important, it is necessary to get an understanding of What URSB is and what it does.

WHAT IS URSB?

URSB is the statutory body (this means it was created by an Act of Parliament) which is in charge of carrying out all registrations which are required under Uganda’s laws, maintain the registers of the data and records and generally manage this information which it collects. The information it collects is termed as “public information” meaning it is open to the public to access.

URSB is the place where companies are registered when being formed and all company decisions are supposed to be filed as Resolutions here. This means that all the major decisions a company makes are contained in the file of that Company at the URSB offices. The file of a company will contain key information from the identity of the shareholders to the managerial decisions made by the Directors and by the Members of the Company.

ARE THE FILES KEPT AT URSB SECRET?

The documents at URSB are typically not secret and one can carry out a search at the Companies Registry to find out information about any given company or registered business- this is usually necessary to find out details before dealing with a particular business as a part of “due diligence”

THE EFFECT OF A MISSING FILE

When a file goes missing from the Bureau, it becomes hard for anyone investigating the activities of the business- especially with Companies- which make all their major decisions through documents called “Company Resolutions” and they must be filed at the Registry. A lost file therefore has a negative impact on the integrity of the company in terms of its decisions and activities and their authentication.
Because documents filed at the Company Registry are considered Public documents at the time of filing, there is no need to prove their validity. However, where the file goes missing, the documents not on record purporting to be of the Company cannot just be believed on the face of it and need to be proved.